تزریق گازهای اسیدی در سازندهای زمین‌شناسی با هدف ازدیاد برداشت و حفاظت از محیط زیست: مروری بر سازوکارهای آسیب سازند، زمینه‌ها و اصول پژوهش آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشکده مهندسی نفت اهواز، دانشگاه صنعت نفت، ایران

10.22078/pr.2020.4274.2934

چکیده

با کشف میادین بزرگ گاز ترش در سال‌های اخیر و کاهش قیمت گوگرد، به مشکلات عملیاتی و زیست محیطی روش‌‎های شیمیایی بازیافت گوگرد، عدم جذابیت اقتصادی این روش‌ها نیز افزوده گردیده است. راهکار جایگزین جهت دفع جریان مشکل‌ساز گاز اسیدی حاصل از فرآیندهای شیرین‌سازی گاز ترش، تزریق گاز اسیدی به سازندهای زمین‌شناسی است که نه تنها باعث حفاظت از محیط زیست در مقابل انتشار گازهای سمی و گلخانه‌ای خواهد شد، بلکه فرصت‌های جدیدی در زمینه ازدیاد برداشت مخازن نفت و گاز ارائه خواهد کرد. جذابیت‌های اقتصادی این روش و الزامات زیست محیطی تشدید شده در سال‌های اخیر منجر به اقبال بیش از پیش پژوهشگران به موضوعات مختلف تحقیقاتی در زمینه گازهای اسیدی گردیده است. با توجه به عدم وجود نوشتاری جامع در تاریخچه که بتواند به عنوان راهنمایی جامع و سریع در زمینه مطالعاتی گاز اسیدی در دسترس پژوهشگران علاقه‌مند به این حوزه باشد، در این نوشتار مروری با هدف روشن شدن چالش‌ها و الزامات پیش روی محققین در زمینه انتخاب تکنیک مطالعاتی و تجهیز آزمایشگاهی مناسب در پژوهش‌های گاز اسیدی، سعی داریم پس از پرداختن به برهم‌کنش‌های سنگ و سیال مخزن با گاز اسیدی و مکانیسم‌های محتمل آسیب سازند در پروژه‌های تزریق، به تبیین اهمیت آزمایش‌های سیلاب‌زنی مغزه به منظور شبیه‌سازی انتقال گاز اسیدی در سازندهای زمین‌شناسی و حوزه‌های تحقیقاتی قابل پژوهش با این آزمایش‌ها پرداخته و تجهیزات و تکنیک‌های آزمایشگاهی مطرح به منظور درک و مطالعه جریان چندفازی و پایش سیستم داخلی سنگ و سیال مخزن حین عملیات ازدیاد برداشت و ذخیره‌سازی گاز اسیدی را مورد بررسی، مقایسه و تحلیل قرار دهیم. در پایان ملاحظات خاص ایمنی مربوط به آزمایشگاه‌‌های مطالعاتی گاز اسیدی نیز ارائه خواهد گردید.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Acid Gas Injection into Geological Formations with the Aim of Enhanced Oil Recovery and Environmental Protection: A Review of Formation Damage Mechanisms, Areas and Principles of Experimental Research

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayed Mohammadreza Mirforughy
  • Shahin Kord
  • Jamshid Moghadasi
Petroleum Engineering Department, Ahwaz Faculty of Petroleum, Petroleum University of Technology, Iran
چکیده [English]

With the discovery of sizeable sour gas fields in recent years and the reduction of sulfur prices, the economic unattractiveness has been added to the operational and environmental problems of sulfur recovery methods. The alternative solution to deal with the troublous acid gas flow resulting from sour gas sweetening is the acid gas injection into geological formations. It protects the environment from toxic and greenhouse gases and creates new opportunities for enhanced oil and gas recovery. This method’s economic attractiveness and the ever-increasing strictness of environmental laws have increased research interest in acid gas sequestration and EOR studies in recent years. There was no thorough literature review to be used as a comprehensive and rapid guide by researchers interested in acid gas studies. This review article tries to clarify the challenges and requirements that researchers may face in selecting the appropriate study technique and experimental apparatus design in acid gas studies. After reviewing reservoir rock and fluid interactions with acid gas and possible formation damage mechanisms, the importance of core-flood experiments for simulating the multi-phase flow inside geological formations in acid gas injection projects shall be explained. We will present the research areas explorable with such experiments and evaluate, compare, and analyze the several experimental techniques and prominent experimental apparatuses available in the literature used to understand the multi-phase flow and monitor the internal rock and fluid system during acid gas injection. Finally, specific safety considerations for acid gas study laboratories will be provided.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acid gas injection
  • Acid gas sequestration
  • Formation Damage
  • Core Flooding
  • Experimental Procedures
[1]. Maddox R N, Sheerar L F (1982) Gas conditioning and processing, Gas And Liquid Sweetening, Campbell Petroleum Series, 4. ##
[2]. Orr W L (1974). Changes in sulfur content and isotopic ratios of sulfur during petroleum maturation—study of Big Horn Basin Paleozoic oils, AAPG bulletin, 58, 11: 2295-2318. ##
[3]. Mirforughy S M, Kord S, Moghadasi J (2021) A Review on acid gas injection into geological formations with the aim of enhanced oil recovery and environmental protection: theoretical foundations, journal of Petroleum Research, 30, 99-6: 116-132.‏ ##
[4]. Fong M W (2004) A demonstration of acid rain, Presented at the Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching. ##
[5]. Mokhatab S, Poe W A,  Mak J Y (2019) Chapter 7 - Natural gas treating, Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing, Fourth Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing, 231-269. ##
[6]. Falcao L d S M (2016) Simulation study of acid gas injection into the Cherry Canyon Formation, Delaware Basin, New Mexico: New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. ##
[7]. کرد ش.، میرفروغی س. م.، و مقدسی، ج. (1399) مروری بر تزریق گازهای اسیدی در سازندهای زمین شناسی با هدف ازدیاد برداشت و حفاظت از محیط زیست: مبانی تئوری، پژوهش نفت. ##
[8]. Bennion D B, Thomas E, Bennion D W, Bietz R (1996) Formation screening to minimize permeability impairment associated with acid gas or sour gas injection/disposal, Paper presented at the Annual Technical Meeting. ##
[9]. Ott H, de Kloe K, van Bakel M, Vos F, van Pelt A, Legerstee P, Bauer A, Eide K, van der Linden A,  Berg S (2012) Core-flood experiment for transport of reactive fluids in rocks, Review of Scientific Instruments, 83, 8: 084501. ##
[10]. Ribeiro A S, Mackay E J, Guimarães L (2016) Predicting calcite scaling risk due to dissolution and re-pre cipitation in carbonate reservoirs during CO2 injection, Paper presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition. ##
[11]. Bennion D, Thomas F, Schulmeister B, Imer D, Shtepani E, Becker L (2002) The phase behavior of acid disposal gases and the potential adverse impact on injection or disposal operations, Paper presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference. ##
[12]. Bachu S, Gunter W D (2005) Overview of acid-gas injection operations in Western Canada, Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, 7: 443-448, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd. ##
[13]. Longworth H, Dunn G,  Semchuck M (1996) Underground disposal of acid gas in Alberta, Canada: regulatory concerns and case histories, Paper presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium. ##
[14]. Ott H, Snippe J, De Kloe K, Husain H, Abri A (2013) Salt precipitation due to Sc-gas injection: single versus multi-porosity rocks, Energy Procedia, 37: 3319-3330. ##
[15]. Carroll J J (2010) Acid gas injection and carbon dioxide sequestration, 42, John Wiley and Sons. ##
[16]. Chang C, Zhou Q, Guo J, Yu Q (2014) Supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer in low-permeability sandstone: Effect of concentration difference in water-flood experiments, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 28: 328-342. ##
[17]. Piri M (2012) Recirculating, constant backpressure core flooding apparatus and method, Patent WO2012082797A1. US Patent and Trademark Off, Washington, DC. ##
[18]. Cnudde V, Boone M N (2013) High-resolution X-ray computed tomography in geosciences: A review of the current technology and applications, Earth-Science Reviews, 123: 1-17. ##
[19]. Ma J, Petrilli D, Manceau J C, Xu R, Audigane P, Shu L, Jiang P, Le-Nindre Y M (2013) Core scale modelling of CO2 flowing: identifying key parameters and experiment fitting, Energy Procedia, 37: 5464-5472. ##
[20]. Gutierrez M, Katsuki D, Almrabat A (2012) Effects of CO2 injection on the seismic velocity of sandstone saturated with saline water, International Journal of Geosciences, 3, 5: 908. ##
[21]. Adebayo A R, Kandil M E, Okasha T M, Sanni M L (2017) Measurements of electrical resistivity, NMR pore size and distribution, and x-ray CT-scan for performance evaluation of CO2 injection in carbonate rocks: A pilot study, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 63: 1-11. ##
[22]. Carroll J (2002) Phase equilibria relevant to acid gas injection, part 1-Non-aqueous phase behaviour, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 41: 06. ##
[23]. Carroll J (2002) Phase equilibria relevant to acid gas injection: Part 2-Aqueous phase behaviour, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 41: 07. ##
[24]. Chapoy A, Burgass R, Tohidi B, Hajiw M, Coquelet C (2015) Thermophysical Properties, hydrate and phase behaviour modelling in acid gas-rich systems, acid gas extraction for disposal and related topics, 115139. ##
[25]. Clark M, Svrcek W, Monnery W, Jamaluddin A, Bennion D, Thomas F, Wichert E, Reed A, Johnson D (1998) Designing an optimized injection strategy for acid gas disposal without dehydration, Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the Annual Convention-gas Processors Association. ##
[26]. Huron M J, Dufour G N, Vidal J (1977) Vapour-liquid equilibrium and critical locus curve calculations with the soave equation for hydrocarbon systems with carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1, 4: 247-265. ##
[27]. Stryjek R, Vera J (1986) PRSV: An improved peng—robinson equation of state for pure compounds and mixtures, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 64, 2: 323-333. ##
[28]. Wong D S H, Sandler S I (1992) A theoretically correct mixing rule for cubic equations of state, AIChE Journal, 38, 5: 671-680. ##
[29]. Carroll J J, Slupsky J D, Mather A E (1991) The solubility of carbon dioxide in water at low pressure, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 20, 6: 1201-1209. ##
[30]. Scharlin P, Cargill R W (1996) Carbon dioxide in water and aqueous electrolyte solutions, Oxford University Press, 62.
[31]. Peter G (1988) Hydrogen sulfide, deuterium sulfide and hydrogen selenide, Solubility data series; l32. ##
[32]. Carroll J J, Mather A E (1989) The solubility of hydrogen sulphide in water from 0 to 90 C and pres sures to 1 MPa. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 6: 1163-1170. ##
[33]. Kalantari-Dahaghi A, Gholami V, Moghadasi J, Abdi R (2008) Formation damage through asphaltene precipitation resulting from CO2 gas injection in Iranian carbonate reservoirs, SPE Production and Operations, 23, 02: 210-214. ##
[34]. Hajiw M (2014) Hydrate mitigation in sour and acid gases, (PhD), Heriot-Watt University. ## 
[35]. باهری ع.، جوزیان س.، و کمال م. (1394) بررسی مضرات هیدرات گازی و ارا ئه راه حل‌هایی برای کاهش آنها، پنجمین کنفرانس انرژی و محیط زیست، مرکز همایش‌های صدا و سیما، تهران، ایران. ##
[36]. Rathnaweera T, Ranjith P, Perera M (2016) Experimental investigation of geochemical and mineralogical effects of CO2 sequestration on flow characteristics of reservoir rock in deep saline aquifers, Scientific reports, 6: 19362. ##
[37]. Giorgis T, Carpita M, Battistelli A (2007) 2D modeling of salt precipitation during the injection of dry CO2 in a depleted gas reservoir, Energy Conversion and Management, 48, 6: 1816-1826. ##
[38]. Gamal H, Abdelgawad K, lkatatny S (2019) New environmentally friendly acid system for iron sulfide scale removal, Sustainability, 11, 23: 6727. ##
[39]. Bacci G, Korre A, Durucan S (2011) Experimental investigation into salt precipitation during CO2 injection in saline aquifers, Energy Procedia, 4: 4450-4456. ##
[40]. Li Y, Ranjith P G, Perera M S A, Yu Q (2017) Residual water formation during the CO2 storage process in deep saline aquifers and factors influencing it: A review, Journal of CO2 Utilization, 20: 253-262. ##
[41]. Shi J Q, Xue Z, Durucan S (2009) History matching of CO2 core flooding CT scan saturation profiles with porosity dependent capillary pressure, Energy Procedia, 1, 1: 3205-3211. ##
[42]. Snippe J, Berg S, Ganga K, Brussee N, Gdanski R (2020) Experimental and numerical investigation of wormholing during CO2 storage and water alternating gas injection, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 94: 102901. ##
[43]. Smith M M, Hao Y, Carroll S A (2017) Development and calibration of a reactive transport model for carbonate reservoir porosity and permeability changes based on CO2 core-flood experiments, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 57: 73-88. ##
[44]. Ott H, Oedai S, Pentland C, Eide-Engdahl K, van der Linden A, Gharbi O, Bauer A, Makurat A (2013) CO2 reactive transport in limestone: flow regimes, fluid flow and mechanical rock properties, Paper presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Napa Valley, California, USA. ##
[45]. Assayag N, Matter J, Ader M, Goldberg D, Agrinier P (2009) Water–rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects, Chemical Geology, 265, 1: 227-235. [46]. Bennion B, Bachu S (2008) Drainage and imbibition relative permeability relationships for supercritical CO2/brine and H2S/brine systems in intergranular sandstone, carbonate, shale, and anhydrite rocks, SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering, 11, 03: 487-496. ##
[47]. Zhang Y, Kogure T, Chiyonobu S, Lei X, Xue Z (2013) Influence of heterogeneity on relative permeability for CO2/brine: CT observations and numerical modeling, Energy Procedia, 37: 4647-4654. ##
[48]. Farokhpoor R, Bjørkvik B J A, Lindeberg E, Torsæter O (2013) CO2 Wettability behavior during CO2 sequestration in saline aquifer -an experimental study on minerals representing sandstone and carbonate, Energy Procedia, 37: 5339-5351. ##
[49]. Perrin J C, Benson S (2010) An experimental study on the influence of sub-core scale heterogeneities on CO2 distribution in reservoir rocks, Transport in Porous Media, 82, 1: 93-109. ##
[50]. Pini R, Krevor S C M, Benson S M (2012), Capillary pressure and heterogeneity for the CO2/water system in sandstone rocks at reservoir conditions, Advances in Water Resources, 38: 48-59. ##
[51]. Wildenschild D, Sheppard A P (2013) X-ray imaging and analysis techniques for quantifying pore-scale structure and processes in subsurface porous medium systems, Advances in Water Resources, 51: 217-246. ##
[52]. Zhang Y, Nishizawa O, Kiyama T, Chiyonobu S, Xue Z (2014) Flow behaviour of supercritical CO2 and brine in Berea sandstone during drainage and imbibition revealed by medical X-ray CT images, Geophysical Journal International, 197, 3: 1789-1807. ##
[53]. Crawshaw J P, Boek E S (2013) Multi-scale imaging and simulation of structure, flow and reactive transport for CO2 storage and EOR in carbonate reservoirs, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 77, 1: 431-458. ##
[54]. Zhang Y, Kogure T, Nishizawa O, Xue Z (2017) Different flow behavior between 1-to-1 displacement and co-injection of CO2 and brine in Berea sandstone: Insights from laboratory experiments with X-ray CT imaging, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 66: 76-84. ##
[55]. Zhang Y, Nishizawa O, Park H, Kiyama T, Lei X, Xue Z (2017) The pathway-flow relative permeability of co2: measurement by lowered pressure drops, Water Resources Research, 53, 10: 8626-8638. ##
[56]. Dávila G, Dalton L, Crandall D M, Garing C, Werth C J, Druhan J L (2020) Reactive alteration of a Mt. Simon Sandstone due to CO2-rich brine displacement, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 271: 227-247. ##
[57]. Pini R, Madonna C (2016) Moving across scales: a quantitative assessment of X-ray CT to measure the porosity of rocks, Journal of Porous Materials, 23, 2: 325-338. ##
[58]. Seyyedi M, Giwelli A, White C, Esteban L, Verrall M, Clennell B (2020) Effects of geochemical reactions on multi-phase flow in porous media during CO2 injection, Fuel, 269: 117421. ##
[59]. Xu L, Myers M, Li Q, White C, Zhang X (2020) Migration and storage characteristics of supercritical CO2 in anisotropic sandstones with clay interlayers based on X-CT experiments, Journal of Hydrology, 580: 124239. [60]. Berg S, Oedai S, Landman A J, Brussee N, Boele M, Valdez R, van Gelder K (2010) Miscible displacement of oils by carbon disulfide in porous media: Experiments and analysis, Physics of Fluids, 22, 11: 113102. ##
[61]. Als‐Nielsen J, McMorrow D (2011) X-rays and their interaction with matter Elements of Modern X‐ray Physics, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. ##
[62]. Boone M A, Bultreys T, Masschaele B, Loo D V, Hoorebeke L V, Cnudde V (2016) In-situ, real time micro-CT imaging of pore scale processes, the next frontier for laboratory based micro-CT scanning. ##
[63]. Bazaikin Y, Gurevich B, Iglauer S, Khachkova T, Kolyukhin D, Lebedev M, Lisitsa V, Reshetova G (2017) Effect of CT image size and resolution on the accuracy of rock property estimates, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 122, 5: 3635-3647. ##
[64]. Menke H P, Gao Y, Andrew M (2018) Using nano-CT and high-contrast imaging to inform microporosity permeability during Stokes-Brinkman flow simulations on μCT images, In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, H41K. ##
[65]. Ott H, Berg S, Oedai S (2012) Displacement and Mass Transfer of CO2/Brine in Sandstone Energy Procedia, 23: 512-520. ##
[66]. Ni H, Boon M, Garing C, Benson S M (2019) Predicting CO2 residual trapping ability based on experimental petrophysical properties for different sandstone types, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 86: 158-176. ##
[67]. Krevor S C M, Pini R, Zuo L, Benson S M (2012) Relative permeability and trapping of CO2 and water in sandstone rocks at reservoir conditions, Water Resources Research, 48: 2. ##
[68]. Perrin J C, Falta R W, Krevor S, Zuo L, Ellison K, Benson S M (2011) Laboratory experiments on core-scale behavior of CO2 exolved from CO2-saturated brine, Energy Procedia, 4: 3210-3215. ##
[69]. Zhao Y, Zhang Y, Lei X, Zhang Y, Song Y (2020) CO2 flooding enhanced oil recovery evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging technique, Energy, 203: 117878. ##
[70]. Song Y, Jiang L, Liu Y, Yang M, Zhao Y, Zhu N, Dou B, Abudula A (2012) An experimental study on CO2/water displacement in porous media using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 10: 501-509. ##
[71]. Berg S, Oedai S, Ott H (2013) Displacement and mass transfer between saturated and unsaturated CO2–brine systems in sandstone. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 12: 478-492. ##
[72]. Wei B, Zhang X, Wu R, Zou P, Gao K, Xu X, Pu W, Wood C (2019). Pore-scale monitoring of CO2 and N2 flooding processes in a tight formation under reservoir conditions using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): A case study, Fuel, 246: 34-41. ##
[73]. Song Y, Zhu N, Zhao Y, Liu Y, Jiang L, Wang T (2013) Magnetic resonance imaging study on near miscible supercritical CO2 flooding in porous media, Physics of Fluids, 25, 5: 053301. ##
[74]. Liu Y, Teng Y, Jiang L, Zhao J, Zhang Y, Wang D, Song Y (2017) Displacement front behavior of near miscible CO2 flooding in decane saturated synthetic sandstone cores revealed by magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 37: 171-178. ##
[75]. Jiang L, Song Y, Liu Y, Yang M, Zhu N, Wang T, Zhao Y (2013) Magnetic resonance imaging of CO2/water two phase flow in porous media, Energy Procedia, 37: 6839-6845. ##
[76]. Han H, Ouellette M, MacMillan B, Goora F, MacGregor R, Green D, Balcom B J (2011) High pressure magnetic resonance imaging with metallic vessels, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 213, 1: 90-97. ##
[77]. Afrough A, Shakerian M, Zamiri M S, MacMillan B, Marica F, Newling B, Romero-Zerón L, Balcom B J (2018) Magnetic-resonance imaging of high-pressure carbon dioxide displacement: fluid/surface interaction and fluid behavior, SPE Journal, 23, 03, 772-787. ##
[78]. Suekane T, Soukawa S, Iwatani S, Tsushima S, Hirai S (2005) Behavior of supercritical CO2 injected into porous media containing water. Energy, 30, 11: 2370-2382. ##
[79]. Akbarabadi M, Piri M (2013) Relative permeability hysteresis and capillary trapping characteristics of supercritical CO2/brine systems: An experimental study at reservoir conditions, Advances in Water Resources, 52: 190-206. ##
[80]. Ott H, Oedai S (2015) Wormhole formation and compact dissolution in single- and two-phase CO2-brine injections, Geophysical research letters, 42, 7: 2270-2276. ##
[81]. Nooraiepour M, Bohloli B, Park J, Sauvin G, Skurtveit E, Mondol N H (2018) Effect of brine-CO2 fracture flow on velocity and electrical resistivity of naturally fractured tight sandstones, GEOPHYSICS, 83, 1: WA37-WA48. ##
[82]. Zhang Y, Nishizawa O, Kiyama T, Xue Z (2015) Saturation-path dependency of P-wave velocity and attenua tion in sandstone saturated with CO2 and brine revealed by simultaneous measurements of waveforms and X-ray computed tomography images, GEOPHYSICS, 80, 4. ##
[83]. Falcon-Suarez I, Papageorgiou G, Chadwick A, North L, Best A I, Chapman M (2018) CO2-brine flow-through on an Utsira Sand core sample: Experimental and modelling, Implications for the Sleipner storage field, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 68: 236-246. ##
[84]. Falcon‐Suarez I, North L, Amalokwu K, Best A (2016) Integrated geophysical and hydromechanical assessment for CO2 storage: shallow low permeable reservoir sandstones, Geophysical Prospecting, 64(Advances in Rock Physics), 828-847. ##
[85]. North L, Best A I, Sothcott J, MacGregor L (2013) Laboratory determination of the full electrical resistivity tensor of heterogeneous carbonate rocks at elevated pressures, Geophysical Prospecting, 61(2-Rock Physics for Reservoir Exploration, Characterisation and Monitoring), 458-470. ##
[86]. Zhang Y, Park H, Nishizawa O, Kiyama T, Liu Y, Chae K, Xue Z (2017) Effects of fluid displacement pattern on complex electrical impedance in Berea sandstone over frequency range 104–106 Hz. Geophysical Prospecting, 65, 4: 1053-1070. ##
[87]. Katsuki D, Gutierrez M, Almrabat A (2019) Stress-dependent shear wave splitting and permeability in fractured porous rock, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 11, 1: 1-11. ##
[88]. Fusseis F, Steeb H, Xiao X, Zhu W l, Butler I B, Elphick S, Mäder U (2014) A low-cost X-ray-transparent experimental cell for synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography studies under geological reservoir conditions, Journal of synchrotron radiation, 21, 1: 251-253. ##
[89]. Zhang Y, Xue Z, Park H, Shi J Q, Kiyama T, Lei X, Sun Y, Liang Y (2019) Tracking CO2 plumes in clay-rich rock by distributed fiber optic strain sensing (DFOSS): a laboratory demonstration, Water Resources Research, 55, 1: 856-867. ##
[90]. Shi J Q, Xue Z, Durucan S (2011) Supercritical CO2 core flooding and imbibition in Tako sandstone—Influence of sub-core scale heterogeneity, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 5, 1: 75-87. ##
[91]. Chen X, DiCarlo D A (2016) A new unsteady-state method of determining two-phase relative permeability illustrated by CO2-brine primary drainage in berea sandstone, Advances in Water Resources, 96: 251-265.
[92]. Ray T W, Ivey C E (1979) Evaluation of seal materials for high-temperature H2S service Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 18, 01. ##
[93]. H2S (hydrogen sulfide) – Knowledge can save lives (2013) Booklet, Dräger. ##
[94]. Hodgson G (2020) H2S Code of Practice, https://www.ualberta.ca/vice-president-finance/media-library/ualberta/vice-president-finance/environment-health-saftey/documents/h2s-code-of-practice.pdf. ##