بهینه‌سازی و مدل‌سازی زاویه تماس با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ در فرآیند تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته توسط آب هوشمند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 انستیتو مهندسی نفت، دانشگاه تهران

3 پژوهشکده علوم و تکنولوژی پلیمر، پژوهشگاه صنعت نفت، تهران

چکیده

یکی از روش‌های مورد استفاده در ازدیاد برداشت نفت از مخازن کربناته که اخیراً مورد توجه قرار گرفته است، سیلاب‌زنی با آب هوشمند می‌باشد. آب هوشمند با تغییر حالت ترشوندگی سطح سنگ کربناته از حالت نفت دوست به آب دوست، تولید نفت را افزایش می‌دهد. در این پژوهش تاثیر ترکیب یونی آب هوشمند بر حالت ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته در دماهای ماندگاری مختلف و pH‌های متفاوت با آزمایش زاویه تماس بررسی شده است. در طراحی آزمایش‌ها از روش سطح پاسخ استفاده شد. نتایج آزمایش‌ها نشان می‌دهد که یون‌های Mg+2ا، SO4-2 و +K به دلیل برهم‌کنش با سطح سنگ و اسید چرب نقش مهمی در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته دارند. بنابراین، علاوه بر یون‎های فعال مانند Mg+2 و SO4-2، نمک‎های غیر فعال مانند KCl نیز بر حالت ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته تاثیر می‌گذارند. افزایش دما سبب افزایش خاصیت ترشوندگی با آب و افزایش فعالیت یون‌ها در محلول می‌شود. افزایش pH به دلیل کاهش بار مثبت سطح سنگ کربناته، سبب کاهش زاویه تماس می‌گردد، ولی در مقادیر pH حدود 8، احتمالا به دلیل تشکیل رسوب یون Mg+2 زاویه تماس افزایش می‌یابد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization and Modeling of Contact Angle via Response Surface Methodology in Wettability Alteration Process of Carbonate Rocks by Smart Water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeb Ahmadi 1
  • Mohsen Vafaie Sefti 1
  • Alireza Bahramian 2
  • Seyyed Omid Rastegar 1
  • Khosrow Jarrahian 3
1 Msc Student of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
2 Associated Professor of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Tehran University, Tehran
3 Senior Researcher in Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Polymer Science and Technology Division
چکیده [English]

One of the recently developed methods of enhanced oil recovery in carbonate reservoir is smart water flooding. Smart water can alter the wetting state of carbonate rocks from oil-wet to water-wet and increase oil production. In this study, we have investigated the effect of smart water composition on the carbonate rock wettability at different aging temperatures and pH’s through measuring the contact angle. The response surface methodology was utilized for the design of experiments. The results show that Mg+2, SO4-2, and K+ ions have important roles in wettability alteration due to interaction with carboxylic acids adsorbed on the rock surface. Not only Mg+2 and SO4-2 ions but also, inactive ions such as K+ influenced the wetting state of carbonate rock. Furthermore, an increase in temperature could cause more water wetting state and more activity of ions in solution. In addition, increasing pH could decrease the contact angle because of reduction in positive surface charge of carbonate rock surface. However, when pH was close to 8, the contact angle was raised probably due to the precipitation of Mg+2 ion.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wettability Alteration
  • Smart Water
  • Contact Angle
  • Experiment Design
  • Carbonate Rock
[1]. Strand S., et al., “Smart water for oil recovery from fractured limstone:a preliminary study,” Energy & Fuels., Vol. 22, pp. 3126-3133, 2008.##

[2]. Jerauld G. R. and Rathmell J. J., “Wettability and relative permeability of prudhoe bay: a case study in mixed wet reservoirs,” 3rd Int. Symposium on Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery, Laramie, Wyoming, 1994.##

[3]. Austad T., Matre B., Milter J., Saevereid A., and Oyno L., “Chemical flooding of oil reservoirs and spontaneous oil expulsion from oil-and water-wet low permeable chalk material by imbibition of aqueous surfactant   solution,” Colloid Surf. A., Vol. 137, pp. 117-129, 1997.##

[4]. Gupta R. and Mohanty K. K., “Wettability alteration of fractured carbonate reservoirs,” Paper SPE 113407 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, pp. 19-23, 20-23, Apr. 2008.##

[5]. Salehi M., Johnson S. J., Liang J. T., “Mechanistic study of wettability alteration using surfactants with applications in naturally fractured reservoirs,” Journal of Langmuir., Vol. 24, pp. 14099-14107, 2008.##

[6] Standnes D. C. and Austad T., “Wettability alteration in chalk 2. mechanisms for wettability alteration from oil-wet to water-wet using surfactants,” Journal of Petroleum Science & Engineering., Vol. 28, pp.123-143, 2000. [7]. Yildiz H. O. and Morrow N. R., “Effect of brine composition on recovery of moutray crude Oil by water flooding,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., Vol. 14, No. 3/4, pp.159-168, 1996.##

[8]. Karoussi O. and Hamouda A. A., “Macroscopic and nanoscale study of wettability alteration of oil-wet calcite surface in presence of magnesium and sulfate ions,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science., Vol. 317, pp. 26-34, 2008.##

[9]. Zhang P., Tweheyo M. T., and Austad T., “Wettability alteration and improved oil recovery by spontaneousimbibitions of seawater into chalk: Impact of the potential determining ions Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 301, pp. 199-208, 2007.##

[10]. Fathi S.J., Austad T., and Strand S., “Smart Water as a Wettability Modifier in Chalk: The Effect of Salinity and Ionic Composition,” Energy & Fuels., Vol. 24, pp. 2514-2519, 2010.##

[11]. Rezaei Gomari K. A. and Hamouda A. A,. “Effect of fatty acids, water composition and pH on the wettability alteration of calcite surface,” Journal of petroleum science and engineering, Vol. 50, pp. 140-150, 2006.##

[12]. Rezaei Doust A., Puntervold T., Strand S. and Austad T., “Smart water as wettability modifier in carbonate and sandstone/differences in the chemical mechanisms,” Energy & Fuels., Vol. 23, pp. 4479-4485, 2009.##

[13]. Amani T., Nosrati M., Mousavi S. M., and Kermanshahi R. K., “Study of syntrophic anaerobic digestion of volatile fatty acids using enriched cultures at mesophilic conditions,” Int. J .Environ.Sci. Technol., Vol. 8, pp. 83-96, 2011.##

[14]. Legens C., Toulhoat H., Cuiec L., Villie¨ras F., and Palermo T., .”Wettability change related to the adsorption of organic acids on calcite: experimental and ab initio computational studies,” Paper SPE 49319 Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans, Louisiana, 27–30 Sep. 1998.##

[15]. Webb K. J.; Black C. J. J., and Tjetland G. “A laboratory study investigating methods for improving oil recovery in carbonates,” In International Petroleum Technology Conference, IPTC, Doha, Qatar, 2005.

[16]. Karimi A., Fakhroueian Z., Bahramian A. R., Pour Khiabani N., Babaee Darabad J. , Azin R., and Sh. Arya, “Wettability alteration in carbonates using zirconium oxide nanofluids: EOR implications,” Energy Fuels, 26 (2), pp 1028–1036, 2012.

[17]. Glandt C. A., Chapman W. G., “Effect of water dissolution on oil viscosity,” SPE Reservoir Engineering, pp. 59- 64, Feb., 1995.

[18]. Myers R. H. and Montgomery D. C., “Response surface methodology,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2002.