مدل‎سازی اندرکنش بین آب با شوری پایین و ماسه‎سنگ از طریق کوپل‎کردن معادلات جریان سیال با مدل ژئوشیمیایی PHREEQC

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشکده مهندسی نفت و گاز، دانشگاه صنعتی سهند، تبریز، ایران

10.22078/pr.2018.3288.2515

چکیده

یکی از روش‌های ازدیاد برداشت نفت که اخیراً مورد توجه زیادی قرارگرفته است، تزریق آب با شوری پایین (LSW) است. بررسی مکانیسم‌های مرتبط با LSW نشان می‎دهد که واکنش‌های ژئوشیمیایی نقش موثری در تغییرات ترشوندگی سنگ و تولید نفت دارند. هدف این مقاله بررسی تأثیر واکنش‌های ژئوشیمیایی حل شدن کلسیت و مبادله یون برروی عملکرد LSW در یک مخزن ماسه‌سنگی با استفاده از مفهوم شوری آستانه است. بدین منظور، معادله جریان سیال براساس تئوری باکلی- لورت با نرم‌افزار ژئوشیمیایی PHREEQC کوپل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که در تزریق LSW، تعادل اولیه بین فاز آبی و سطح سنگ مخزن بر هم می‌خورد که این امر باعث انحلال کلسیت و نیز رخداد تبادل یونی بین فاز آبی و سطح سنگ می‎شود. آنالیز واکنش‌های ژئوشیمیایی در بلوک مجاور چاه تزریقی نشان داد که تبادل کاتیون‎ها می‎تواند سبب رهایش مواد نفتی از سطح سنگ شده که در نتیجه آن تغییر ترشوندگی به‎سمت آب‎دوستی بیشتر رخ خواهد داد. همچنین، پروفایل تغییرات pH در گستره مدل مخزنی نشان داد که سرعت انحلال کلسیت در فواصل نزدیک به چاه تزریقی با نرخ بالایی انجام می‎گیرد، اما در فواصل دورتر، صرفاً انحلال جزئی کلسیت به‎واسطه مکانسیم تبادل یونی رخ می‎دهد. آنالیز نمودارهای جریان جزئی همراستا با پروفایل شوری کل فاز آبی نشان داد که در طول تزریق LSW، دو جبهه جریانی مختلف در گستره مخزن ایجاد می‌شود: جبهه اول مربوط به جابه‎جایی آب با شوری بالا با میزان اشباع آب 43/0 و جبهه دوم مربوط به جابه‎جایی آب با شوری پایین با مقدار اشباع آب 58/0. این مقدار افزایش در اشباع فاز آبی بیانگر توانایی LSW در تولید نفت اضافی است که براساس شرایط این مطالعه و انتخاب شوری آستانه ppm 3000، افزایشی در حدود 10% از نفت اولیه مخزن است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling the Interaction between Low Salinity Water and Sandstone Rock by Coupling Fluid Flow Equations with the PHREEQC Geochemical Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Kalantari
  • Mohammad Simjoo
Faculty of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the enhanced oil recovery methods that has been recently received more attention is low salinity water injection (LSW). Among the proposed mechanisms to describe LSW, geochemical reactions seem to mainly affect rock wettability alteration and thus incremental oil recovery. The goal of this paper is to investigate the effect of geochemical reactions of calcite dissolution and ion exchange on the performance of LSW in a sandstone reservoir by using the concept of threshold salinity. Fluid flow equations according to Buckley-Leverett theory were numerically coupled with the PHREEQC software. Results showed that as LSW was injected, initial equilibrium between reservoir rock surface and aqueous phase was disturbed leading to calcite dissolution and also cation exchange between aqueous phase and rock surface. Analysis of geochemical reaction near the injection well showed that cation exchange may cause to separation of organic compound from rock surface leading to wettability alteration to more water- wet. Also, pH profile through the reservoir showed that rate of calcite dissolution was very high near injection well, but only partial dissolution of calcite induced by cation exchange occurs at farther distance. Fractional flow analyses in line with total salinity profile showed that two distinct saturation shock fronts were established during LSW injection: first one represents high salinity condition with a water saturation of 0.43, and the second one represents low salinity condition with a water saturation as much as 0.58. Under the conditions of this study and selection of a salinity threshold of 3000 ppm, such increase of water saturation reveals EOR potential of LSW by which an incremental oil recovery of 10% of the oil initially in place was obtained as compared to high salinity water injection.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Low Salinity Water
  • Geochemical Reactions
  • PHREEQC
  • Wettability
  • EOR

[1]. Sheng J., “Critical review of low-salinity waterflooding,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 120, pp. 216-224, 2014.##

[2]. Dang C. T. Q., “Mechanistic modeling of low salinity water flooding,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Calgary, Canada, 2015.##

[3]. Lager A., Webb K. J., Collins I. R. and Richmond D. M., “LoSal enhanced oil recovery: Evidence of enhanced oil recovery at the reservoir scale,” SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 2008.##

[4]. Webb K., Black C. and Al Ajeel H., “Low salinity oil recovery-log-inject-log,” DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Bahrain, 2004.##

[5]. Lager A., Webb K., Black C., Singleton M. and Sorbie K., “Low salinity oil recovery-an experimental investigation,” Petrophysics, Vol. 49, 2008.##

[6]. Zhang Y. and Morrow N. R., “Comparison of secondary and tertiary recovery with change in injection brine composition for crude-oil/sandstone combinations,” SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 2006.##

[7]. Zhang Y., Xie X. and Morrow N. R., “Waterflood performance by injection of brine with different salinity for reservoir cores,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA 2007.##

[8]. Jerauld G. R., Webb K. J., Lin C.-Y. and Seccombe J. C., “Modeling low-salinity waterflooding,” SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, Vol. 11, pp. 1,000-1,012, 2008.##

[9]. Robertson E. P., “Oil recovery increases by low-salinity flooding: Minnelusa and Green River formations,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 2010.##

[10]. Skrettingland K., Holt T., Tweheyo M. and Skjevrak I., “Snorre low salinity water injection—core flooding experiments and single well field pilot,” SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2010.##

[11]. McGuire P., Chatham J., Paskvan F., Sommer D. and Carini F., “Low salinity oil recovery: An exciting new EOR opportunity for Alaska›s North Slope,” SPE Western Regional Meeting, Irvine, California, 2005.##

[12]. Shaddel S., Tabatabae-Nejad S. A. and Fathi S. J., “Low-salinity water flooding: evaluating the effect of salinity on oil and water relative permeability, Wettability, and oil recovery,” Special Topics & Reviews in Porous Media, Vol. 5, 2014.##

[13]. Mohanty K. K. and Chandrasekhar S., “Wettability alteration with brine composition in high temperature carbonate reservoirs,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, UAE, 2013.##

[14]. Yousef A. A., Al-Saleh S. H., Al-Kaabi A. and Al-Jawfi M. S., “Laboratory investigation of the impact of injection-water salinity and ionic content on oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs,” SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, Vol. 14, pp. 578-593, 2011.##

[15]. Webb K., Black C. and Edmonds I., “Low salinity oil recovery–the role of reservoir condition corefloods,” IOR 2005-13th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 2005.##

[16]. Rivet S. M., “Coreflooding oil displacements with low salinity brine,” M.Sc. Thesis, Texas at Austin, USA, 2009.##

[17]. Fjelde I., Asen S. M. and Omekeh A. V., “Low salinity water flooding experiments and interpretation by simulations,” SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 2012.##

[18]. Kulkarni M. M. and Rao D. N., “Experimental investigation of miscible and immiscible water-alternating-gas (WAG) process performance,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 48, pp. 1-20, 2005.##

[19]. Shojaei M. J., Ghazanfari M. H. and Masihi M., “Relative permeability and capillary pressure curves for low salinity water flooding in sandstone rocks,” Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, Vol. 25, pp. 30-38, 2015.##

[20]. Al Shalabi E. W. and Sepehrnoori K., “A comprehensive review of low salinity/engineered water injections and their applications in sandstone and carbonate rocks,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 139, pp.137-161, 2016.##

[21]. Tang G. and Morrow N. R., “Salinity, temperature, oil composition, and oil recovery by waterflooding,” SPE Reservoir Engineering, Vol. 12, pp. 269-276, 1997.##

[22]. Nasralla R. A., Alotaibi M. B. and Nasr-El-Din H. A., “Efficiency of oil recovery by low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs,” SPE Western North American Region Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 2011.##

[23]. Suijkerbuijk B., Sorop T., Parker A., Masalmeh S., Chmuzh I., Karpan V. and Skripkin A. G., “Low salinity waterflooding at west-salym: laboratory experiments and field forecasts,” SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Muscat, Oman, 2014.##

[24]. Buckley J., Liu Y. and Monsterleet S., “Mechanisms of wetting alteration by crude oils,” SPE Journal, Vol. 3, pp. 54-61, 1998.##

[25]. Ligthelm D., Gronsveld J., Hofman J., Brussee N., Marcelis F. and van der Linde H., “Novel waterflooding strategy by manipulation of injection brine composition,” EUROPEC/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009.##

[26]. Nasralla R. A., Bataweel M. A. and Nasr-El-Din H. A., “Investigation of wettability alteration by low salinityWater,” Offshore Europe, Aberdeen, UK, 2011.##

[27]. RezaeiDoust A., PunterVold T., Strand S. and Austad T., “Smart water as wettability modifier in carbonate and sandstone: A discussion of similarities/differences in the chemical mechanisms,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 23, pp. 4479-4485, 2009.##

[28]. Suijkerbuijk B., Hofman J., Ligthelm D. J., Romanuka J., Brussee N., van der Linde H. and Marcelis F., “Fundamental investigations into wettability and low salinity flooding by parameter isolation,” SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Oklahoma, USA, 2012.##

[29]. Teklu T. W., Alameri W., Graves R. M., Kazemi H. and Al-sumaiti A. M., “Low-salinity water-alternating-CO2 flooding enhanced oil recovery: theory and experiments,” Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2014.##

[30]. Vledder P., Gonzalez I. E., Carrera Fonseca J. C., Wells T. and Ligthelm D. J., “Low salinity water flooding: proof of wettability alteration on a field wide scale,” SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Oklahoma, USA, 2010.##

[31]. Zekri A. Y., Nasr M. S. and Al-Arabai Z. I., “Effect of losal on wettability and oil recovery of carbonate and sandstone formation,” International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 2011.##

[32]. Austad T., RezaeiDoust A. and PunterVold T., “Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs,” SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Oklahoma, USA, 2010.##

[33]. Tang G.-Q. and Morrow N. R., “Influence of brine composition and fines migration on crude oil/brine/rock interactions and oil recovery,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 24, pp. 99-111, 1999.##

[34]. Nasralla R. A. and Nasr-El-Din H. A., “Double-layer expansion: is it a primary mechanism of improved oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding?,” SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, Vol. 17, pp. 49-59, 2014.##

[35]. Farooq U., Asif N., Tweheyo M. T., Sjöblom J. and Øye G., “Effect of low-saline aqueous solutions and pH on the desorption of crude oil fractions from silica surfaces,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 25, pp. 2058-2064, 2011.##

[36]. Brady P. V. and Krumhansl J. L., “A surface complexation model of oil–brine–sandstone interfaces at 100° C: Low salinity waterflooding,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 81, pp. 171-176, 2012.##

[37]. Emadi A. and Sohrabi M., “Visual Investigation of oil recovery by lowsalinity water Injection: formation of water micro-dispersions and wettability alteration,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 2013.##

[38]. Austad T., Strand S., Madland M. V., PunterVold T. and Korsnes R. I., “Seawater in chalk: an EOR and compaction fluid,” International Petroleum Technology Conference, Dubai, U.A.E, 2007.##

[39]. Austad T., Strand S., Høgnesen E. and Zhang P., “Seawater as IOR fluid in fractured chalk,” SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, USA 2005.##

[40]. Fathi S. J., Austad T. and Strand S., “Water-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by “smart water”, Optimal ionic composition for EOR in carbonates,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 25, pp. 5173-5179, 2011.##

[41]. Strand S., Standnes D. and Austad T., “New wettability test for chalk based on chromatographic separation of SCN− and SO 4 2−,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 52, pp. 187-197, 2006.##

[42]. Jerauld G. R., Webb K. J., Lin C.-Y. and Seccombe J., “Modeling low-salinity waterflooding,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2006.##

[43]. Mahani H., Sorop T., Ligthelm D. J., Brooks D., Vledder P., Mozahem F. and Ali Y., “Analysis of field responses to low-salinity waterflooding in secondary and tertiary mode in Syria,” SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 2011.##

[44]. Dang C. T. Q., Nghiem L. X., Chen Z. J. and Nguyen Q. P., “Modeling low salinity waterflooding: ion exchange, geochemistry and wettability alteration,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 2013.##

[45]. Kazemi Nia Korrani A., Jerauld G.R. and Sepehrnoori K., “Coupled geochemical-based modeling of low salinity waterflooding,” SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA , 2014.##

[46]. Parkhurst D. L. and Appelo C., “Description of input and examples for PHREEQC version 3—a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations,” 6th ed., US Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, 2013.##

[47]. Nasralla R. A., Snippe J. R. and Farajzadeh R., “Coupled geochemical-reservoir model to understand the interaction between low salinity brines and carbonate rock,” SPE Asia Pacific Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2015.##

[48]. Dake L. P., “Fundamentals of reservoir engineering,” 8th ed., Elsevier, 1983.##