بررسی عملکرد گازوییل نانو امولسیونی در انتشار آلاینده‌های زیست محیطی در مقایسه با سوخت پایه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

پژوهشگاه صنعت نفت، پژوهشکده شیمی پتروشیمی

چکیده

حضور ذرات بسیار ریز آب به صورت نانوامولسیون در سوخت‌های دیزلی به هنگام احتراق در موتور باعث پدیده میکروانفجار می‌شود که با وقوع این فرایند، اکسیژن بیشتری در اختیار سوخت قرار گرفته و باعث بهسوزی آن می‌شود. در این کار پژوهشی، فرمولاسیون گازوییل نانو امولسیونی با استفاده از بسته مواد فعال سطحی از قبیل اسیدهای چرب و نمک آنها، استر اسیدهای چرب، اسیدهای چرب اتوکسیله و مخلوط آنها به همراه کمک حلال‌های خطی از جمله الکل‌های سبک نظیر بوتانول، هگزانول و غیره در حضور 15- 5 % آب مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج به‌دست آمده از آزمایش‌ها نشان می‌دهد که سوخت‌های نانو امولسیونی طی مدت زمان طولانی به طور کامل شفاف بوده و با عدم ته‌نشینی و دو فاز شدن، پایدار باقی ماندند. پس از آزمایش‌های انجام شده در موتور دیزلی OM314 از نظر آلاینده‌های زیست محیطی منتشر شده از اگزوز، مصرف سوخت و عملکرد موتور در مقایسه با سوخت پایه (گازوییل معمولی) مقایسه شدند. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که حضور 15- 5% آب در این سوخت‌ها، باعث کاهش انتشار اکسیدهای نیتروژن تا حد 9/12-44/0%، دوده 9/43-35/17%، هیدروکربن‌های نسوخته 6-82/0% و بهبود بازده حرارتی و خاصیت روانکاری در موتور دیزل شد. همچنین حضور آب و مواد افزودنی در این سوخت‌ها باعث کاهش ارزش حرارتی سوخت گردید که با وجود بهبود کیفیت احتراق در اثر پدیده میکروانفجار و افزایش بازده حرارتی8/4-3%، باعث افت قدرت موتور در حدود 6/13- 5/4 % شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Diesel Nanoemulsion Fuel on Reduction of Exhaust Pollutants in Comparison with Conventional Fuel

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Asghar Khalili
  • Marzieh Shekarriz
  • Yadollah Pirzadeh
  • Forouzan Hajialiakbari
  • Aliyar Kazemifar
  • Sohrab Taghipoor
Chemistry and Petrochemical Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, (RIPI)
چکیده [English]

The presence of nanoemulsion water droplets in diesel fuel during combustion phenomena causes micro explosions. This process provides more oxygen for fuel and therefore improved combustion efficiency. Diesel fuel nanoemulsions were obtained by using surfactant packages such as long chain fatty acids and their salts, fatty esters, ethoxylated fatty acids and together with co-surfactants such as linear alcohols, butanol and hexanol in the presence of 5-15% of water. These compositions were stable and transparent during long period of time. These fuels were tested in diesel engine OM314 and their performance such as exhaust emissions fuel consumption and engine performance were compared with conventional diesel fuel. The presence of 5-15% water in these fuel compositions causes the exhaust emissions, i.e. nitrogen oxides (0.44-12.9%), soot (17.35-43.9%), and unburned hydrocarbons (0.82-6%) to decrease, but thermal efficiency in diesel engine and lubricity improve. In addition, the presence of water and additives in the fuel reduces heating value, and despite improving the quality of micro explosion phenomenon and increasing the thermal efficiency of combustion (3-4.8%) it causes engine power to decrease by 4.5-13.5%.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water–in-oil
  • Water-in-diesel Emulsions
  • Water-in-hydrocarbon Emulsion
  • Low Emission Fuels
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