بررسی عملکرد و سازگاری نمونه آب‌های هوشمند حاوی بازدارنده‌های رسوب در مخازن کربناته

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

انستیتو مهندسی نفت، دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، پردیس دانشکده‌های فنی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

10.22078/pr.2019.3585.2636

چکیده

میزان کم بازیافت اولیه نفت در مخازن کربناته، پتانسیلی فوق‌العاده را جهت به‌کارگیری روش‌های ازدیاد برداشتی فراهم می سازد. طی سال‌های گذشته تحقیقات فراوانی مبنی بر اثر مثبت تزریق آب هوشمند، به عنوان یکی از روش‌های مقرون به‌صرفه در ازدیاد برداشت نفت در این مخازن گزارش شده است که با بهبود وضعیت ترشوندگی به‌سمت آب‌دوستی بیشتر و تأثیر مثبت بر فشار مویینگی و تراوایی نسبی منجر به بازیافت نفت می‌شود. یکی از مشکلات موجود در پروژه‌های تزریق آب تشکیل رسوب مواد معدنی به‌دلیل ناسازگاری بین آب تزریقی و آب سازند است که موجب مشکلات جدی در مخزن و چاه‌ها می‌شود. مؤثرترین روش مقابله با این مشکل به‌کارگیری بازدارنده‌های رسوب مناسب به منظور جلوگیری و یا به تأخیر انداختن فرآیند تشکیل رسوب است. در این پژوهش در دو حالت بدون حضور و در حضور بازدارنده‌های رسوب، فرآیند اختلاط نمونه‌های مختلف آب هوشمند با آب سازند به‌کمک شبیه‌ساز OLI Scale Chem و تست‌های آزمایشگاهی انجام پذیرفت و میزان رسوبات تشکیل شده، تأثیر ترکیب آب تزریقی و نیز کارآیی بازدارنده‌های مختلف مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. همچنین با استفاده از روش اندازه‌گیری زاویه تماس، تغییرات ترشوندگی مقاطع کربناته در یک بازه زمانی مشخص برای نمونه آب‌های هوشمند بدون بازدارنده‌ها و نیز شورآب‌های حاوی انواع مختلف بازدارنده‌ها بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که تزریق آب هوشمند با ترکیب بهینه‌سازی شده و حاوی بازدارنده‌های مناسب نه تنها خطر تشکیل رسوب در فرآیند اختلاط آب‌ها را کاهش می‌دهد بلکه با تغییر ترشوندگی مقاطع کربناته به‌سمت آب‌دوستی بیشتر اثر مثبتی بر میزان بازیافت نفت از این مخازن دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Performance and Compatibility of Smart Waters Containing Scale Inhibitor in Carbonate Reservoirs

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Mohammadi
  • Siavash Riahi
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Low oil recovery provides a great need to apply the enhanced oil recovery techniques in carbonate reservoirs. Moreover, positive effects on smart water injection have been reported, and it has been known as one of the most cost-effective methods to enhance oil recovery in carbonate reservoirs by improving the wettability of carbonate rocks to more water-wetness state and positively affect the capillary pressure and relative permeability. One of the problems in water injection is the formation of mineral scales due to incompatibility of injection water and formation water which causes serious problems in the reservoir and wells. The most effective method for dealing with this problem is the use of suitable scale inhibitors (SIs) to prevent or delay scale formation. In this study, both in the absence and presence of various SIs, different smart waters were mixed with formation water to measure the amount of solid scale which may precipitate out of the mixed solution. Also, OLI Scale Chem simulator is used to investigate the incompatibility between blank smart waters without SIs and formation water. The amount and type of scales, the effect of water composition on the formation of these scales and the efficiency of used scale inhibitors are discussed. Also, by using the contact angle measurement method, the wettability alteration of the carbonate thin section over a specified time period and the benefits of smart water containing scale inhibitor in comparison with blank smart water without scale inhibitor are investigated. Finally, results show that smart waters, with optimized ionic composition, containing proper scale inhibition chemicals, not only reduce the risk of scale formation in mixing incompatible waters, but also have positive impact on oil recovery by changing the wettability of oil-wet carbonate rocks to water-wet state.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • Smart Water
  • Wettability Alteration of Carbonate Rock
  • Mineral Scales
  • Scale Inhibitor

[1]. Rashid S., Mousapour M. S., Ayatollahi Sh., Vossoughi M. and Beigy A. H., “Wettability alteration in carbonates during Smart waterflood: underlying mechanisms and the effect of individual ions, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 487, pp. 142-153, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa. 2015.##

[2]. Ligthelm, D. J., Gronsveld J., Hofman J., Brussee N. J., Marcelis F. and van der Linde H., “Novel waterflooding strategy by manipulation of injection brine composition,” EUROPEC/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, SPE-119835-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/119835-MS., The Netherlands, 8-11 June 2009.##

[3]. Yi Z. and Kumar Sarma H., “Improving waterflood recovery efficiency in carbonate reservoirs through salinity variations and ionic exchanges: A promising low-cost smart-waterflood approach,” Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, SPE-161631-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/161631-MS., Abu Dhabi, UAE, 11-14 November 2012.##

[4]. Austad T., “Water-based EOR in carbonate and sandstones: New chemical understanding of the EOR potential using smart water,” Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies, pp. 301-335, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386545-8.00013-0, 2013.##

[5]. Lindlof J. C. and Stoffer K. G., “A case study of seawater injection incompatibility,” Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 35, No. 7, pp. 1256-62, SPE-9626-PA, https://doi.org/10.2118/9626-PA., July 1983.##

[6]. Vetter O., Kandarpa V. and Harouaka A., “Prediction of scale problems due to injection of incompatible waters,” Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 273-284, 1982. SPE-7794-PA, https://doi.org/10.2118/7794-PA.##

[7]. Moghadasi J., Jamialahmadi M., Müller-Steinhagen H. and Sharif A., “Scale formation in oil reservoir and production equipment during water injection (Kinetics of CaSO4 and CaCO3 crystal growth and effect on formation damage),” SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, SPE-82233-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/82233-MS., Netherlands, 13-14 May 2003.##

[8]. Moghadasi J., Jamialahmadi M., Müller-Steinhagen H. and Sharif A., “Formation damage due to scale formation in porous media resulting from water injection,” SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, SPE-86524-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/86524-MS., Lafayette, Louisiana, 18-20 February 2004.##

[9]. Moghadasi J., Jamialahmadi M., Müller-Steinhagen H., Sharif A., Izadpanah M. R., Motaei E. and Barati R., “Formation damage in Iranian oil fields,” International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, SPE-73781-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/73781-MS., Lafayette, Louisiana, 20-21 February 2002.##

[10]. Vetter O. J. and Farone W. A., “Calcium carbonate scale in oilfield operations,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, SPE-16908-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/16908-MS., Dallas, Texas, 27-30 September 1987.##

[11]. Jordan, M. M., Sorbie, K. S., Graham, G. M., Taylor K., Hourston K. E. and Hennessey S., “The correct selection and application methods for adsorption and precipitation scale inhibitors for squeeze treatments in North Sea oilfield,” SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, SPE-31125-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/31125-MS., Lafayette, Louisiana, 14-15 February 1996.##

[12]. Zhang P. and Austad T., “Wettability and oil recovery from carbonates: Effects of temperature and potential determining ions,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 279, No. 1-3, pp. 179-187, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.01.009., 2006.##

[13]. Zhang P., Tweheyo M. T. and Austad T., “Wettability alteration and improved oil recovery in chalk: The effect of calcium in the presence of sulfate,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 2056-2062, https://doi.org/10.1021/ef0600816. 2006.##

[14]. Zhang P., Tweheyo M. T. and Austad T., “Wettability alteration and improved oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of seawater into chalk: Impact of the potential determining ions Ca+2, Mg+2, and SO4-2,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 301, No. 1-3, pp. 199-208, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.12.058., 2007.##

[15]. Gupta R., Smith G. G., Hu L., Willingham T., Lo Cascio M., Shyeh J. J. and Harris C. R., “Enhanced waterflood for middle east carbonate cores-impact of injection water composition,” SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, SPE-142668-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/142668-MS., Manama, Bahrain, 25-28 September 2011.##

[16]. Chen T., Neville A. and Yuan M., “Assessing the effect of Mg+2 on CaCO3 scale formation-bulk precipitation and surface deposition,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 275, No. 1-2, pp. 275 e1341–e1347, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.11.169. 2005.##

[17]. Tweheyo M. T., Zhang P. and Austad T., “The effects of temperature and potential determining ions present in seawater on oil recovery from fractured carbonates,” SPE/DOE symposium on improved oil recovery, SPE-99438-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/99438-MS., Tulsa, Oklahama, USA, 22-26 April 2006.##

[18]. Shaw S. S., “Investigation into the mechanisms of formation and prevention of barium sulphate oilfield scale,” PhD dissertation, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, May 2012.##

[19]. Guan H., Graham G. M. and Juhasz A., “Investigation of wettability alteration following scale inhibitor adsorption onto carbonate and clastic reservoir core material static tests and ESEM studies,” International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, SPE-80231-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/80231-MS., Houston, Texas, 5-7 February 2003.##

[20]. Ghosh B., Sun L. and Osisanya S., “Smart-water EOR made smarter a laboratory development,” International Petroleum Technology Conference, IPTC-18988-MS, https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-18988-MS., Bangkok, Thailand, 14-16 November 2016.##

[21]. Hognesen E. J., Strand S. and Austad T., “Waterflooding of preferential oil-wet carbonates: Oil recovery related to reservoir temperature and brine composition,” SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference, SPE-94166-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/94166-MS., Madrid, Spain, 13-16 June 2005.##

[22]. Safavi M. S., Masihi M., Safekordi A. A.,  Ayatollahi S. and Sadeghnejad S., “Effect of SO4-2 ion exchanges and initial water saturation on low salinity water flooding (LSWF) in the dolomite reservoir rocks,” Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, https://doi.org/10.1080/01932691.2019.1614026. May 2019. ##

[23]. Standard Version 9.2, https://www.olisystems.com.##

[24]. Strand, S., Høgnesen, E. J. and Austad, T., “Wettability alteration of carbonates, effects of potential determining ions (Ca+2 and SO4-2) and temperature, colloids and surfaces”, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 257, Issue 1-3, pp. 1–10, 2006.##

[25].Standnes D. C., “Enhanced oil recovery from oil-wet carbonate rock by spontaneous imbibition of aqueous surfactant solutions”, Doctoral Thesis, NTNU university, Department of Petroleum Technology, Norway, Stavanger, 2001.##

[26]. Sorbie K. S. and Laing N., “How scale inhibitors work: Mechanisms of selected barium sulpate scale inhibitors across a wide temperature range”, SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, UK, 26-27 May SPE-87470-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/87470-MS., 2004.##

[27]. Graham G. M., Sorbie K. S. and Jordan M. M., “How scale inhibitors work and how this affects test methodology”, IBC Conference on Solving Oilfield Scale Exhibition, Aberdeen, UK, 22-23 Jan 1997.##

[28]. Boak L. S., Graham G. M. and Sorbie K. S., “The influence of divalent cations on the performance of BaSO4 scale inhibitor species”, SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, SPE-50771-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/50771-MS., Houston, Texas, 16–19 February 1999.##

[29]. Graham G. M., Boak L. S. and Sorbie K. S., “The influence of formation calcium on the effectiveness of generically different barium sulphate oilfield scale inhibitors”, International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, SPE-37273-MS, https://doi.org/10.2118/37273-MS., Houston, Texas, 18–21 February 1997.##

[30]. Graham G. M., Boak L.S. and Sorbie K. S., “The influence of formation calcium and magnesium on the effectiveness of generically different barium sulphate oilfield scale inhibitors”, SPE Production and Facilities, Vol. 18, No. 1, SPE-81825-PA, https://doi.org/10.2118/81825-PA., 2003.##

[31]. Hiorth A., Cathles L. M. and Madland M. V., “The impact of pore water chemistry on carbonate surface charge and oil wettability”, Transport in Porous Media, Vol. 85, No. 1, pp. 1–21, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9543-6., 2010.##