f7dc9c6ab1f8c7a 8fcd9532671845f 8fcd9532671845f

بررسی تأثیر ذرات رسوب سولفاته در تشکیل امولسیون آب- نفت در هنگام اختلاط آب هوشمند– آب سازند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، گروه مهندسی نفت، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

10.22078/pr.2019.3157.2451

چکیده

مهاجرت ذرات رسوب در طول سیلاب‌زنی با آب هوشمند، نقش مهمی در بهبود بازیافت نفت دارد. این مطالعه نشان می‌دهد اختلاط دو آب ناسازگار باعث تشکیل رسوب‌های سولفاته شده که افزایش نفت به این مخلوط منجر به تشکیل امولسیون نفت می‌شود. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی نقش ذرات نامحلول در تشکیل امولسیون نفت و تأثیر آن در افزایش بازیافت نفت است. برای مطالعه این پدیده از سه نوع آب سازند با غلظت بالای یون‌های باریم، کلسیم و استرانسیم و نیز آب هوشمند با غلظت بالای یون سولفات استفاده شد. همچنین، برای بررسی شرایط تشکیل امولسیون از نفت خام و نفت مدل حاوی استئاریک اسید و هگزادسیل آمین استفاده شد. ترکیب نفت اولیه و شناور از طریق آنالیز طیف‌سنجی (UV) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در نهایت، تأثیر تشکیل امولسیون در محیط متخلخل مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمایش‌ها نشان داد در اثر اختلاط آب‌های سازند و آب هوشمند رسوب‌های باریم سولفات، کلسیم سولفات و استرانسیم سولفات تشکیل می‌شوند. پس از افزایش نفت به آب‌نمک دارای ذرات رسوب مشاهده شد که میزان رسوب موجود در آب کاهش می‌یابد. همچنین، نتایج آنالیز طیف‌سنجی (UV) از نفت شناور نشان داد که میزان استئاریک اسید و هگزادسیل آمین موجود در فاز نفت کاهش یافته است. بنابراین این نتیجه حاصل شد که ذرات رسوب با اجزای قطبی نفت، امولسیون نفت در آب را تشکیل می‌دهند. مقایسه نتایج سیلاب‌زنی با آب‌های هوشمند بدون یون سولفات و حاوی یون سولفات نشان داد که ذرات رسوب با بستن برخی از منافذ و تشکیل امولسیون در محیط متخلخل باعث افزایش بازیافت نفت از 14% به 47% می‌شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Effect of Sulfate Sediment Particles on Water-Oil Emulsion Formation when Mixing Smart Water-Formation Water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Saeedi Dehaghani
  • Sina Alizadeh
Petroleum Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Precipitate migration during smart water injection plays a significant role in improving the oil recovery. This study showed that the process of mixing two incompatible water causes sulfate precipitate production while introducing oil to the combination results in an emulsion formation. The main objective of this study is to investigate the fine solids present in the water and their roles in emulsion formation and how they affect the oil recovery. Three types of formation water were used in this study. These 3 water types contained high concentrations of barium, calcium and strontium ions respectively. The smart water contains high concentration of sulfates. Moreover, crude oil and model oils (containing Stearic acid) were used in order to study the emulsion formation conditions. The composition of both primary oil and floating oil were studied using UV analyzing method. Finally, the effect of emulsion formation in porous media on oil recovery was studied. Experiments showed that mixing smart and formation water results in Barium, calcium and Strontium Sulfate precipitation. By introducing oil to the combination of the two water types, a reduction in the amount of precipitate was observed. Finally, the results, which were obtained by implementing UV, showed that amount of stearic acid and also the precipitates were decreased in the oil phase. Therefore, this must be due to the interaction among polar components of the oil phase and the precipitate fines, which it causes an emulsion formation. Water flooding using a smart water containing sulfate ion, and the one that does not contain sulfate, have shown that precipitates which have caused an emulsion formation increases the recovery factor from 14 to 47 percent.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Formation Water
  • Smart Water
  • Sulfate Precipitates
  • Emulsion
  • oil recovery
[1]. Tzimas E., Georgakaki A., Garcia Cortes C. and Peteves S. D., “Enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide in the European energy system,” Report EUR 21895, No. 6, 2005.##

[2]. Bayona H. J., “A review of well injectivity performance in Saudi Arabia›s ghawar field seawater injection program,” In Middle East Oil Show, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1993.##

[3]. Jordan M. M., Graff C. J. and K. Cooper N., “Deployment of a scale squeeze enhancer and oil-soluble scale inhibitor to avoid oil production losses in low water-cut well,” SPE Production & Facilities, Vol. 16, Issue. 04, pp. 267-276, 2001. ##

[4]. McElhiney, E. J., D. R. Sydansk, M. W. Benzel and B. K. Davidson. “Determination of in-situ precipitation of barium sulfate during core-flooding,” Paper Presented at The SPE third International Symposium on Oilfield scale,” Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2001.##

[5]. Moghadasi J., M. Jamialahmadi H. Müller-Steinhagen A. Sharif M. R. Izadpanah E. Motaei and R. Barati, “Formation damage in Iranian oil fields,” In International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2002. ##

[6]. Moghadasi J., M. Jamialahmadi H. Müller-Steinhagen and Sharif A., “Scale formation in oil reservoir and production equipment during water injection (kinetics of CaSO4 and CaCO3 crystal growth and effect on formation damage),” In SPE European formation damage conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2003.##

[7]. Voloshin A. I., V. V. Ragulin N. E. Tyabayeva I. I. Diakonov and Mackay E. J., “Scaling problems in western Siberia,” In International Symposium on Oilfield Scale. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2003. ##

[8]. Nasr-El-Din H. A., Raju K. U., Hilab V. V. and Esmail O. J., “Injection of incompatible water as a means of water shut-off,” In SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Scale. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2004. ##

[9]. Bedrikovetsky P., Mackay E. J., Moraes G. P., Rosario F. F. and Monteiro R. P., “Laboratory-based prediction of sulphate scaling damage,” In SPE International Oilfield Scale Symposium, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2006.##

[10]. Moghadasi J., Müller-Steinhagen H., Jamialahmadi M. and Sharif A., “Model study on the kinetics of oil field formation damage due to salt precipitation from injection,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 43, Issue 3-4, pp. 201-217, 2004.##

[11]. Zhang P., Tweheyo M. T. and Austad T., “Wettability alteration and improved oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of seawater into chalk: Impact of the potential determining ions Ca+2, Mg+2, and SO4−2,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 301, Issue. 1-3, pp. 199-208, 2007. ##

[12]. Puntervold T., Strand S., Ellouz R. and Austad T., “Modified seawater as a smart EOR fluid in chalk,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 133, pp. 440-443, 2015. ##

[13]. Strand S., Høgnesen E. J., Austad - Colloids T. and Surfaces A., “Wettability alteration of carbonates—Effects of potential determining ions (Ca+2 and SO4−2) and temperature,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 275, Issue. 1-3, pp. 1-10, 2006. ##

[14]. Webb K. J., Black C. J. J. and Tjetland G., “A laboratory study investigating methods for improving oil recovery in carbonates,” In International petroleum technology conference. International Petroleum Technology Conference, 2005. ##

[15]. Chakravarty K. H., Fosbøl P. L. and Thomsen K., “Interactions of fines with oil and its implication in smart water flooding,” In SPE Bergen One Day Seminar. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2015. ##

[16]. Zahid A., Sandersen S. B. and Stenby E. H., “Advanced waterflooding in chalk reservoirs: Understanding of underlying mechanisms,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 389, Issue. 1-3, pp. 281-290, 2011.

[17]. Pickering S. U., Emulsions. J. Chem. Soc. Trans. 91, 2001-2021, 1907. ##

[18]. Binks Bernard P., “Particles as surfactants—similarities and differences,” Current opinion in colloid & interface science, Vol. 7, Issue 1-2, pp. 21-41, 2002.##

[19]. Benicek J., “Application of emulsion-forming enzymes for enhanced oil recovery,” M.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark, 2015. ##

[20]. Chakravarty K. H., Fosbøl P. L., Thomsen K., “Interactions of fines with base fractions of oil and its implication in smart water flooding,” In EUROPEC 2015. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2015. ##

[21]. Kim I., Worthen A. J., Johnston K. P. and DiCarlo D. A., “Size-dependent properties of silica nanoparticles for Pickering stabilization of emulsions and foams,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 18, Issue 4, P. 82, 2016.##

[22]. Chakravarty K. H., Fosbøl P. L. and Thomsen K., “Fine formation during brine-crude oil-calcite interaction in smart water enhanced oil recovery for Caspian Carbonates (Russian),” In SPE Annual Caspian Technical Conference & Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2015. ##

[23]. Roozbahani A. R., Saeedi Dehaghani A. H. and Ayatollahi Sh., “Experimental investigation of the effect of salinity and type of ion on the stability of water in oil emulsion,” Petroleum Research, Vol. 29, Issue 108, pp. 1-5, 2019.##