بررسی آزمایشگاهی اثر رس کائولینیت بر عملکرد تزریق آب با شوری کم در محیط میکرومدل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

بخش مهندسی نفت، دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، نفت و گاز، دانشگاه شیراز، ایران

چکیده

تزریق آب یکی از مهم‌ترین روش‌های ازدیاد برداشت نفت است که در میادین مختلفی در دنیا به‌صورت موفقیت آمیز مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. تحقیقات جدید نشان داده است که شوری آب ضمن اهمیت آن برای مباحث مربوط به آزادسازی ذرات و آسیب سازند می‌تواند نقش مهمی در افزایش تولید نفت داشته باشد. پژوهش‌های زیادی نشان داده‌اند که وجود رس در سازندهای ماسه‌سنگی می‌تواند در ازدیاد برداشت نفت در اثر تزریق آب با شوری کم نقش به‌سزایی داشته باشد. با این حال، همه محققان نظر واحدی در این زمینه ندارند. همچنین، اکثر مطالعات مرتبط با جدا شدن و مهاجرت ذرات در اثر تزریق آب با شوری کم هم با سیال تک فازی (آب) انجام شده است. بنابراین، در این مطالعه با استفاده از محیط متخلخل دوبعدی (میکرومدل شیشه‌ای)، به بررسی نقش رس کائولینیت بر عملکرد تزریق آب با شوری کم در مقیاس آزمایشگاهی پرداخته شده است. در آزمایشهای  انجام شده از نفت قطبی یکی از میادین جنوب ایران به‌عنوان فاز نفتی و شوری‌های مختلف آب‌نمک سدیم‌کلرید به‌عنوان فاز آبی استفاده شده است. نتایج این مطالعه نشان می‌دهد در هر دو حالت میکرومدل پوشیده با رس و عاری از آن، با کاهش شوری، افزایش برداشت مشاهده می شود. افزایش ضریب بازیافت نهایی مطلق در میکرومدل پوشیده از رس و عاری از رس در اثر تزریق آب با شوری کم، به‌ترتیب 07/3% و 89/1% حجم اولیه نفت می‌باشد. به‌علاوه، مهاجرت ذرات در آزمایش‌های دو فازی و تک فازی در میکرومدل پوشیده با رس در اثر کاهش پیوسته شوری آب تزریقی مشاهده شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Experimental Investigation of Kaolinite Clay Role in Low Salinity Water Flooding: A Micromodel Study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Razieh Kashiri
  • Azim Kalantariasl
  • Rafat Parsaei
  • Mojtaba Ghaedi
  • Hojjat Mahdiyar
Department of Petroleum Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum engineering, Shiraz University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water flooding is one of the most important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in the world. It has been successfully implemented in many oilfields. Low salinity water flooding (LSWF) has been recognized as one of the promising methods for enhanced oil recovery of clay-rich sandstone reservoirs. Many studies have shown that LSWF has an important role in formations with sufficient amount of clay. However, different hypotheses that have been proposed for oil recovery due to LSWF mechanisms are not completely accepted, and they need more investigation due to controversial response to LSWF. Thus, there is not a general agreement for mechanisms behind low salinity effects and associated problems such as fines migration and formation damage. In this study, 2-D glass micromodels (clean and clay-coated) and crude oil from an Iranian oilfields were used to visualize the effect of lowering injected water salinity (30000 ppm, 4000 ppm, 2000 ppm and DI water) on fines migration and improved oil recovery. In addition, single phase flow test was performed to evaluate possible fines migration with the same salinities. Results indicate an increase in recovery for both clay-coated and clay-free systems while additional oil recovery during LSWF in clay-coated micromodel was more significant (3.07%) comparing to that for clay-free micromodel (1.89%). Fines migration was observed during both single- and two-phase flow experiments.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • water flooding
  • Low salinity
  • Kaolinite
  • Fines Migration
[1]. Tang G‌, Morrow NR (1997) Salinity, temperature, oil composition, and oil recovery by waterflooding, in SPE Reservoir Engineering, 269-276.##

[2]. Morrow N, Buckley J (2011) Improved oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 63, 05: 106-112. ##

[3]. Mahani H, Berg S, Ilic D, Bartels WB, Joekar-Niasar V (2015) Kinetics of low-salinity-flooding effect, SPE Journal, 20, 01: 8-20. ##

[4]. Sheng JJ (2014) Critical review of low-salinity waterflooding, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 120, 216-224. ##

[5]. Bartels WB, Mahani H, Berg S, Hassanizadeh SM (2019) Literature review of low salinity waterflooding from a length and time scale perspective, Fuel, 236: 338-353. ##

[6]. Jackson MD, Vinogradov J, Hamon G, Chamerois M (2016) Evidence, mechanisms and improved understanding of controlled salinity waterflooding part 1: Sandstones, Fuel, 185: 772-793. ##

[7]. Katende A, Sagala F (2019) A critical review of low salinity water flooding: Mechanism, laboratory and field application, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 278: 627-649. ##

[8]. Ayirala S, Yousef A (2015) A state-of-the-art review to develop injection-water-chemistry requirement guidelines for IOR/EOR projects, SPE Production & Operations, 30, 01: 26-42. ##

[9]. Hao J, Mohammadkhani S, Shahverdi H, Esfahany MN, Shapiro A (2019) Mechanisms of smart waterflooding in carbonate oil reservoirs-A review, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 179: 276-291. ##

[10]. Ding H, Rahman S (2017) Experimental and theoretical study of wettability alteration during low salinity water flooding-an state of the art review, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 520: 622-639. ##

[11]. Al-Sarihi A, Zeinijahromi A, Genolet L, Behr A, Kowollik P, Bedrikovetsky P (2018) Effects of fines migration on residual oil during low-salinity waterflooding, Energy & Fuels, 32, 8: 8296-8309. ##

[12]. Austad T, RezaeiDoust A, Puntervold T, (2010) Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs, In SPE improved oil recovery symposium, Society of Petroleum Engineers. ##

[13]. Nasralla RA, Nasr-El-Din HA (2014P) Double-layer expansion: is it a primary mechanism of improved oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding?. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 17, 01: 49-59. ##

[14]. Emadi A, Sohrabi M (2013) Visual investigation of oil recovery by lowsalinity water injection: formation of water micro-dispersions and wettabilityalteration, in SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers. ##

[15]. Song W, Kovscek AR (2015) Functionalization of micromodels with kaolinite for investigation of low salinity oil-recovery processes, Lab on a Chip, 15, 16: 3314-3325. ##

[16]. Barnaji MJ, Pourafshary P, Rasaie MR (2016) Visual investigation of the effects of clay minerals on enhancement of oil recovery by low salinity water flooding, Fuel, 826-835. ##

[17]. Amirian T, Haghighi M, Mostaghimi P, (2017) Pore scale visualization of low salinity water flooding as an enhanced oil recovery method, in Energy & Fuels, 31, 12: 13133-13143. ##

[18]. Bartels WB, Mahani H, Berg S, Menezes R, van der Hoeven JA, Fadili A (2017) Oil configuration under high-salinity and low-salinity conditions at pore scale: a parametric investigation by use of a single-channel micromodel, SPE Journal, 22, 05, 1-362. ##

[19]. Bazyari A, Soulgani BS, Jamialahmadi M, Dehghan Monfared A, Zeinijahromi A (2018) Performance of smart water in clay-rich sandstones: experimental and theoretical analysis, Energy & Fuels, 32, 10: 10354-10366. ##

[20]. Al-Sarihi A, Zeinijahromi A, Genolet L, Behr A, Kowollik P, Bedrikovetsky P (2018) Effects of fines migration on residual oil during low-salinity waterflooding, Energy & Fuels, 32, 8: 8296-8309. ##

[21]. Mahzari P, Sohrabi M, Cooke AJ, Carnegie A (2018) Direct pore-scale visualization of interactions between different crude oils and low salinity brine, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 166: 73-84. ##

[22]. Al-Saedi HN, Brady PV, Flori RE, Heidari P (2019) Insights into the role of clays in low salinity water flooding in sand columns, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 174: 291-305. ##

[23]. Yu M, Zeinijahromi A, Bedrikovetsky P, Genolet L, Behr A, Kowollik P, Hussain F (2019) Effects of fines migration on oil displacement by low-salinity water, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 175: 665-680. ##

[24]. Bedrikovetsky P, Siqueira FD, Furtado CA, Souza ALS (2011) Modified particle detachment model for colloidal transport in porous media, Transport in Porous Media, 86, 2: 353-383. ##

[25]. Lashkarbolooki M, Ayatollahi S, Riazi M (2014) The impacts of aqueous ions on interfacial tension and wettability of an asphaltenic–acidic crude oil reservoir during smart water injection, Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 59, 11: 3624-3634. ##