بررسی آزمایشگاهی عملکرد غشای پلی‌آمید- نانو سیلیکا جهت کاهش میزان اکسیژن مورد نیاز شیمیایی (COD) آب تولیدی) مخلوط آب و زایلن( توسط اسمزمعکوس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مهندسی شیمی، پردیس علوم و تحقیقیات فارس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، فارس، ایران/گروه مهندسی شیمی، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

در استخراج نفت و گاز، مقادیر زیادی آب برای دست‌یابی به سطح بازیابی بالا به داخل مخزن تزریق می‌شود. زمانی‌که این مایع به سطح برمی‌گردد، غنی شده از هیدروکربن‌های ارزشمند است و عنوان این مایع "آب تولیدشده" است. از عملیات غشایی جهت جداسازی این مخلوط مایع و استفاده مجدد از آب تولیدشده استفاده می‌شود. یکی از فاکتورهای مهم در تصفیه آب تولیدی، کاهش میزان اکسیژن مورد نیاز شیمیایی (COD) است. حداکثر حد مجاز COD آب همراه نفت خام که از طریق چاه‌های نفت به سطح زمین می‌آید، برای تخلیه در آب‌های سطحی ppm 60 است. در این پژوهش، از فرآیند اسمزمعکوس استفاده گردید و تاثیر پارامترهای فشار، درصد وزنی پلیمر و نانو ذره بر میزان شار عبوری و کاهش COD پساب، با استفاده از غشای پلی آمید همراه با نانو ذره سیلیکا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. با توجه به تصاویر SEM ملاحظه گردید که غشا از سه لایه تشکیل‌شده و لایه پلی‌آمیدی که کار اصلی جداسازی را بر عهده دارد، لایه‌ای چگال بوده و دارای شکل ظاهری سطحی تپه و دره است و لایه پلی‌اتر‌سولفون (میانی) دارای تخلخل‌های انگشتی شکل است. در این پژوهش، از مخلوط زایلن و آب مقطر به‌عنوان آب تولیدشده استفاده گردید و از روش آماری پاسخ سطح و طرح مرکب مرکزی جهت طراحی آزمایش‌ها و بررسی آماری نتایج استفاده شد. به‌منظور انتخاب غشای بهینه، شار و درصد جداسازی بیشینه لحاظ شد که مقدار غلظت پلیمر پلی اتر سولفون 05/10% وزنی، نانوذره سیلیکا 09/2% وزنی و فشار عملیاتی بهینه bar 10 پیشنهاد شد و نتایج آزمایشگاهی بهینه برای مقدار شار، درصد جداسازی و میزان COD در جریان تراوش یافته به‌ترتیب kg.m-2.h-1 11/39، 65/98% و ppm 30 حاصل شد که حتی بهتر از استانداردهای تخلیه پساب‌های نفتی به آب‌های سطحی بود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Experimental Study of Polyamide-Silica Nanoparticles Membrane Performance in Reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of Produced Water (A Mixture of Xylene-Water) by Using Reverse Osmosis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Keshtkar
  • Mohammmad Hossein Jazebizadeh
Department of Chemical Engineering, Fars Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, IranDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In oil and gas production, large amounts of water are injected into the reservoir to achieve a high recovery level. When this liquid returns to the surface, it is enriched with valuable hydrocarbons and is called “produced water”. Membrane operations are used to separate this liquid mixture and reuse the produced water. One of the important factors in the treatment of produced water is the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The maximum COD limit for crude oil that comes to the surface through oil wells is 60 ppm for surface water discharge. In this study, the reverse osmosis process was used and the effect of pressure, weight percentage of polymer and nanoparticle parameters on the flow rate and COD reduction of effluent was investigated using polyamide membrane with silica nanoparticles. According to SEM images, it was observed that the membrane consists of three layers and the polyamide layer, which is responsible for the main separation, is a dense layer and has an uneven surface morphology, and polyether sulfone (middle layer) has finger like porosity. In this study, xylene and distilled water were used as produced water. The response surface method and central composite design were used for designing the experiments and statistical analysis of the results. In order to select the optimum membrane, maximum flux and separation percentage were considered. The optimum conditions with concentration of 10.05 wt.% polyether sulfone polymer, 2.09 wt.% silica nanoparticles and the operating pressure of 10 bar were predicted. The optimum laboratory results for flux, separation rate and COD in the effluent were 39.11 kg.m-2.h-1, 98.65% and 30 ppm, respectively, which was even better than the standards for discharging petroleum effluents into surface water.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Produced Water
  • Reverse Osmosis
  • polyamide membrane
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand
  • Xylene
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