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عنوان مقاله [English]
Hydraulic fracturing is a reservoir stimulation technique which is used to increase the flow from low permeability formations. In this paper, the mechanism of hydraulic fracturing with a focus on factors affecting hydraulic fracturing pressure has been investigated. The effects of axial and confining stresses are examined via a triaxial cell that has been designed and made in Sahand University of Technology. To this end, thirty one rock samples including reservoir samples (Aghagari sandstone, Asmari limestone and Sarvak limestone) and non-reservoir samples (Varzaghan field sandstone) are used. Water-based mud is used to study the effect of fluid type and viscosity. Xanthan gum, Guar gum, and polymer are added to increase the viscosity of the water. Axial stress applied to the top of cylindrical sample and the confining stress applied radially. The direction of failure by stresses (axial and confining stress) is determined. The results show that the fracture pressure increases by increasing the confining stress; also, fracture pressure goes through a maximum of 10 MPa by raising the axial stress but decrease from 10 Mpa. The initiation and extension of cracks in hydraulic fracturing are influenced by the rock permeability and the fracturing fluid viscosity. The fracture pressure for low viscosity fluid (water) is less than that of high viscosity fluid (xanthan gum).