بهبود خواص نفت سنگین در سامانه کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیک: اثر حضور منبع هیدروژنی و نانوذرات فلزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

پردیس دانشکده‌های فنی، دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

کاویتاسیون یکی از تکنیک‌هایی است که می‌توان از آن برای افزایش کارایی فرآیند پالایش باقی‌مانده‌های برج تقطیر و یا افزایش استحصال ترکیبات سبک‌تر و مفیدتر نفت خام سنگین و افزایش کیفیت آن استفاده کرد. فروپاشی سریع حباب که در حالت آدیاباتیک اتفاق می‌افتد باعث افزایش ناگهانی فشار و دمای موضعی سیال می‌شود. شرایط پیش آمده به‌گونه‌ای است که می‌تواند باعث شکستن پیوند بین اتم‌ها، ایجاد و انتشار رادیکال‌های فعال در محیط و در نتیجه انجام واکنش‌های شیمیایی و همچنین فعال شدن کاتالیست‌های مجاور حباب‌های در حال فروپاشی شود. در این مطالعه از سامانه آزمایشگاهی کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیک برای بهبود خواص نفت کوره پالایشگاه لاوان استفاده شد. در آزمون‌های این تحقیق، از بنزین به‌عنوان منبع تولید هیدروژن و همچنین از نانوذرات آهن به‌عنوان کاتالیست برای بهبود خواص نفت سنگین استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که استفاده از 1% حجمی بنزین در فرآیند کاویتاسیون می‌تواند گرانروی نفت سنگین را در مدت زمان min 10 به‌میزان 19 % کاهش دهد. همچنین حضور نانوذرات آهن در این فرآیند باعث افزایش سرعت مصرف هیدروژن و در نتیجه افزایش سرعت کاهش گرانروی در حضور منبع هیدروژنی مناسب می‌شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Heavy Oil Upgrading in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Setup: The effect of Hydrogen Donor and Metal Nanoparticles

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Askarian
  • Ali Vatani
  • Mohsen Edalat
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Cavitation technique can be used to increase the efficiency of the refining process of the heavy atmospheric and vaccum residuals and to upgrade the heavy stocks. The adiabatic collapse of the bubbles generated as a consequence of pressure reduction can produce conditions of very high localized temperature and pressure whilst the global conditions remain with no sensible change. In such a case, the bonds between atoms of molecules trapped in the bubble would be broken, some active radicals may be generated, chemical reactions may occur, and some catalyst particles may be activated. This paper investigated upgrading an Iranian refinery heavy fuel oil in a hydrodynamic cavitation setup. The system contains a feed tank, an internal 2 kW heating element, an additive container, a rotary pump (model DRP 16 lpm) with a 2.2 kW electric motor, a cavitation chamber, recycle pipe and a light products container. The stainless steel cavitation chamber consists of two narrow grooves at the top, a cone shape body and a collector at the bottom. Gasoline as a hydrogen donor and iron nanoparticles as catalyst were added to the cavitational heavy oil upgrading process. The results indicated that the cavitational processing in the presence of gasoline can reduce the viscosity and the total sulfur content of the heavy oil sample. Adding 1 vol% gasoline to a 10-minutes cavitational cracking process at 80 °C and atmospheric pressure can reduce the viscosity of heavy oil by 19%. In addition, iron nanoparticles increase the rate of hydrogen uptake and therefore the rate of viscosity reduction of heavy oil, in the presence of proper hydrogen donor.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hydrodynamic Cavitation
  • Hydrogen Donor
  • Viscosity Reduction
  • Iron Nanoparticles
  • heavy oil

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